Having reached the halfway point for GSOC last week, we’ve been asked to summarize what our gems will deliver by the end of the summer, and what our plans are for them after that.

On that pretext, I’d also like to announce that my gem has been officially released in alpha form, and named bio-publisci. Its goal is to provide a framework for publishing scientific results and data to the Semantic Web, which provides a unified data representation format, query language, integration standards, and a focus on using machine understanding to deal with the vast quantities of data being published today. For the version 1.0 release of the gem in September, you can expect to see

edit: Sorry about the formatting issues, wordpress seems to have no interest in making this post look how I want it to.

A Domain Specific Language for Scientific Results

  • A clean, simple interface for publishing results and datasets to the semantic web
    Describe your data and results in a descriptive language implemented in Ruby, and the gem will generate RDF formatted output with it. Using simple syntax such as

    You can generate RDFize your raw data, include basic authorship and publishing metadata, and add information about your data’s provenance.All of the methods declare objects which have their own independant serialization functions, so since the DSL is implemented in Ruby you are free to mix and match your output set, include the DSL in your own programs or access the underlying methods, and make use of the full range of ruby syntactic sugar, clever tricks, and metaprogramming in your scripts if you so desire.

    Every component is designed to be optional, so if you just need dataset or provenance generation then you can still use the the gem and the DSL.

  • Serialize output as human readable turtle rdf, or store in a dedicated triple store
    RDF data can be encoded in a number of different formats, which are designed for various purposes such as compatibility with existing standards, simplicity, or terseness and human readability. Readability is the goal of Turtle, the Terse RDF Triple Language, which is the primary serialization format supported by my gem. Turtle files are relatively human readable as plaintext, since URIs can be abbreviated using prefixes and grouping, and literal types are often implied and so not necessary to include.
  • Use built in helpers and symbols, or custom predicates and resources
    In the example gist above all of the resources involved are generated under the single base uri In ‘The Wild’ of the open world semantic data, this may make it difficult to integrate existing data or unnecessarily constrain how you’d like to represent your data. Fortunately, anywhere you see a symbol, which starts with a “:” (besides the initial label for the object), you can replace it with a string representing a URI, which will be used instead of the automatically generated URI when the object is accessed or serialized.You can also add custom predicates (properties) using the “has” method, and either the built in vocabulary helper, an RDF::Vocabulary object, or a raw URI.
  • Pure Ruby, including dependencies
    The gem and all of its requirements are pure Ruby libraries, so it is compatible with all current interpreters, and also deployable any system where Java is available (even if Ruby isn’t) using Warbler.

Describe Data using well known standards

  • Basic metadata using the Dublin Core Terms
    See Data for your data

  • Provenance using the PROV ontology
    See Data for your data
  • Dimensional and tabular data using the Data Cube vocabulary
    See Sparkle Cubes

  • Readers and writers to and from a variety of common formats
    Receive input from R , as a CSV file, or using Weka’s arff format, and go in the other direction from RDF to domain files. Over the rest of the summer, I will also be adding support for relevant SciRuby libraries and GSOC projects, such as NMatrix to Data Cube conversion, plotting with Plotrb, and Statsample integration.

Integration with Ruby RDF

  • Zero configuration in-memory repository
    The world of Triple Storage software has yet to see its SQLite equivalent; a tool that is drop-dead simple to set up and a perfect fit for its domain. There are commercial offerings such as OpenLink Virtuoso, which may be feature rich and easy to set up, but are not worth the expense for simple projects, and open source projects such as Sesame or 4store, which are free but often either difficult to set up, or missing crucial features such as a built in SPARQL endpoint. This makes it very difficult to get started working with the Semantic Web, since you may have to spend hours setting up software and learning new standards just to execute a simple query.The rdf gem does not provide this be-all end-all storage solution, but it does help alleviate the startup cost of using triple based storage by providing an in memory repository object, theRDF::Repository, which can be queried using basic graph patterns or the SPARQL language. While it will choke on moderately sized datasets of a few thousand triples, it handles small datasets well and supports integration utilization of RDF in ruby programs. To make things even better, the interface it defines has been implemented for many dedicated triple stores, so once you need something more powerful you can change over with a almost no reconfiguration.The DSL I’ve written includes a “to_repository” method, which can added at the end of a script to send the output directly to the repository, making it radically easier to go straight from a DSL script to a working, persistent RDF dataset with no configuration whatsoever.
  • Minimal configuration storage using triple stores and NoSQL databases
    – AllegroGraph
    – Virtuoso
    – MongoDB
    Ruby RDF defines an interface for using triple stores and other graph-capable persistence software as an RDF::Repository object. Usually all these require for configuration (once the actual repository is installed and set up) is a URI to locate the database, and you’re able to use a dedicated persistence tool to store your data.
  • SPARQL queries using the sparql and sparql-client gems
    All RDF::Repository objects can be queried using the SPARQL language, the official query language for the Semantic Web. This can be done either in raw form, with the sparql gem or the helpers in bio-publisci, or using the relational algebra provided by the sparql-client gem.
  • An HTTP interface and API written using Sinatra
    Using these libraries and tools, I’ve created a simple HTTP interface that allows you to test DSL scripts, view the Turtle output, and execute SPARQL queries. Because of the excellent tools in the Ruby RDF project, and the generation and description capabilities of the DSL, it is possible to implement this sort of functionality in a lightweight server using Sinatra, which is deployable to any Rack compliant host.I will soon post a link here to the demo page, which isn’t much to look at now but does have a working implementation of all the aforementioned capabilities. I’m sharing it with my mentors, but since the DSL is ultimate just raw ruby I need to add some more security to the server before I make it public. After I’ve done this and tightened up the API you’ll be able to use the site to experiment with publication scripts and SPARQL queries, or as a web service for converting and publishing your data.Sinatra is simple and lightweight enough that an end user could host their own publication server, which has a number of interesting potential applications, aside from making development easier.Additionally, the Ruby RDF includes some interesting projects which will now be easier to integrate, such as the object mapping gem spira, the goal of which is to offer an RDF based replacement for the Model layer of Rails and similar frameworks, implemented using ActiveModel’s interface.

If you’d like to see some more heavily annotated examples of the DSL that explain how to use the keywords and blocks, have a look at one of these gists. Most of the methods reflect the underlying ontology’s predicates, but since naming is one of the most important parts of the DSL I’m trying to provide shorter aliases that better fit the Ruby idiom, so I’d love to hear any advice anyone has on my choice of labels.

The Future

I’m very excited about the possibilities for this kind of a tool and plan to continue improving it after the end of the summer. RDF offers a well designed and widely accepted format which is great for publishing scientific results in a searchable and unambiguous manner, and I think is one of our best hopes for dealing with the unfathomable amount of data being generated in the Biology, Physics, and many other fields today. Unfortunately its basic concept and data model takes some time to wrap your head around, and tabular data software has a good 50 year head start on triple stores, so there remain many barriers to its adoption. I believe that by using the cleanness and expressivity of Ruby these barriers can be lowered, and in some cases eliminated. By the end of the summer, I’ll have written a gem with a friendly and flexible interface for converting data and adding much of the metadata relevant to scientific publication, and either interacting with it from within Ruby, serializing it, or publishing it to a dedicated store. But there is a lot more I’d like to do after the summer, once version 1.0 has been released, such as

    • Assertions
      One of the key components of scientific papers is the basic, underlying statement it is trying to make. This may be a statistical correlation that’s been observed, a simple statement of fact such as a gene sequence, or someone’s opinion of the effects of the peer review process on scientific discourse. These assertions are the result of a provenance chain, and potentially a set of supporting evidence or data, both of which are represented in my gem, but assertion are not explicitly a part of it.There are a number of interesting models for representing assertions in RDF, such as Nanopub, which I’d personally like to try out, but in the interest of having a solid data and metadata DSL by the end of the summer, I don’t want to commit to adding this until the fall.
    • More import methods
      RDF is by nature very friendly to the integration of different datatypes. Although the provenance and metadata generation modules are designed to apply equally well to publishing non-RDF data, or data generated using a different technique, it would be good to have a standard place in the DSL to attach other programs or specify flat files. This would allow easy integration with cool existing projects such as Biointerchange.
    • Rails stack integration
      One thing that would really help with the adoption of the Semantic Web is further integration with popular frameworks. In the right hands, these tools could inspire entirely novel ways of using the Model layer of an MVC application.Aside from proselytization, this also allows familiar patterns such as validations and callbacks, not to mention a more comfortable object oriented interface, for interaction with RDF data. In the fall when I can justify more time experimenting with these kinds of things I’d like to work on building rich RDF backed applications using Sinatra and Rails.
    • Novel interaction methods
      Its remarkable the number of people I’ve talked to that stare blankly at me when I talk about the Semantic web, then instantly understand when I show them a couple of drawings.I’d like to explore new ways of interacting with RDF graphs based on visual metaphors and other more “human-oriented” interfaces.Having a web service that can handle all the data formatting behind the scenes would be an important part of this, as the tools available for in-browser visualization and interaction are becoming ever more powerful and widely used.

    • Reasoning based property assignment
      The way the DSL assigns connections between elements is currently more or less hardcoded, according to my understanding of the vocabularies involved. They are, in fact, described using the machine understandable OWL Web Ontology Language.I’d really like to try building the validations and property assignment for a new DSL component directly from an owl ontology, since I think Ruby’s metaprogramming features are well suited to this and it could make the DSL extensible to the point of being a framework in and of itself.
    • Data Linking
      As of now there’s no facility for linking concepts in the RDFization to resources such as dbpedia and bio2rdf, which would make for a much more informative publication, and is standard practice in the Semantic Web world. Although it’d be pretty easy to add this links by hand to the turtle output, I’d like to build that kind of functionality automatically into the gem, to find and suggest linkages and annotate existing datasets with them.

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